Black and Brown Power
Welcome to the Black and Brown Power Movement. This exhibit directly compares the Black Nationalism/Power Movement of the late 1960s and early 1970s with the Chicano Movement of the 1970s. After World War II, racial strains increased for a number of reasons, above them increasing immigration and migration. The result was the emergence of a multi-decade, multi-racial civil rights movement which then spawned the Black nationalism and Chicano movements. We chose six characteristics of each movement which has direct parallels with the other. Those categories, laid out below in the table of contents, are origins, ideology, cultural nationalism, women in the movement, and literature and art of the movement. Both movements share a history of legal and societal oppression, economic and cultural exclusion from “mainstream” American society, police brutality, and above all, a mission of pushing back against white supremacy. Furthermore, both movements were more radical departures from the moderate movements which came before them.
For the project, Janay Alexander and Katy Mayfield focused on researching the Black nationalism movement, while Eriq Colon specialized in the Chicano movement. Julia Connell took on the responsibility of putting together the group’s research on Omeka, and both Julia and Katy contributed to the Chicano research.
|Origins||Origins of the phrase "Black Power"||Origins of the phrase "Chicano"|
|Ideology||Ideology of La Raza|
|Cultural Nationalism||Cultural Nationalism of Black Nationalism||Cultural Nationalism of Chicano Movement|
|Women of the Movement||Angela Davis and Assata Shakur||Women of the Chicano Movement|
|Art and Literature of the Movement||Black Panther Party Works||Works of Chicano Movement|
Black Nationalism and the Chicano Movement are ongoing movements that continues to shape how black and Chicano people understand their status in society. Although it has been confronted with much opposition, these movements gave people hope. It revitalized their spirits in moments when it seemed as if equality was unattainable. It forced the nation to confront the many underlying issues of racism and systematic oppression. It showed society that black people would no longer tolerate oppression, poor living conditions, anti-blackness, and a segregated racial order.
As Black Nationalism spread, the nation bore witness to black people no longer being afraid to fight back. Black power was more than just a rallying cry, it proclaimed pride in blackness, when black people were constantly being told that blackness was subordinate to whiteness. Although shaped as so by the media, Black Nationalism was not a movement to overthrow the government. It was a push to improve the government and enforce due process that all people should be protected equally under the law. Equality and freedom is not progressive nor will it be granted with time. The only way to strive toward a more egalitarian society is to fight for it. When the nation fought for freedom against the British government, it was called an American Revolution. When black people dared to speak for equality, it was called terrorism. The issue that most white people had with Black Nationalism was that for the first time, they would no longer be involved in the future outcome of the status of black people. Black people demanded their right to control their own lives, and the fear of having no power of Black Americans was too much to bear.
The Chicano Movement showed that people of Mexican descent were not going to put up with racial injustice any longer. Although chicanos provided the backbone of American agriculture, they were treated as second-class citizen, facing police brutality, sub-par and segregated educational systems, and other injustices. The Chicano Movement was about standing up for Meixcan-American rights and reclaiming their ethnic background as one of beautiful and rich history. Interweaving identity with other political struggles, the Chicano Movement fought for both a better political future and for the right to claim a past.
Black Nationalism Timeline
Chicano Movement Timeline
“Afrocentrism - Cultural and Political Movement”. Britannica. March 13, 2003. Accessed April 4, 2017. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Afrocentrism
Angela Davis on revolution and violence: Nora Ekard. “Angela Davis on Violence and Revolution”. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2HnDONDvJVE&t=88s . Youtube.com. Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim. July 26, 2015. Accessed March 31, 2017.
“At the Birth of Black Power.” Tufts Now. September 2, 2014. Accessed on April 1, 2017. http://now.tufts.edu/articles/birth-black-power
“Black Nationalism”. Britannica. July 1, 2008. Accessed April 4, 2017. https://www.britannica.com/event/black-nationalism
“Black Nationalism and the Call for Black Power”. Rcgd.isr.umich.edu. N/A. Accessed April 5, 2017. http://www.rcgd.isr.umich.edu/prba/perspectives/fall1999/asmallwood.pdf
“The Black Panther Party”. Alanna Birmingham Hidden Stories. N/A. Accessed April 5, 2017. http://alannabirminghamhiddenhistories.weebly.com/cointelpro.html
“Black Power-White Backlash: 150 Years of Struggle for National Liberation and Socialism”. Global Research. February 28, 2016. Accessed April 5, 2017. http://www.globalresearch.ca/black-power-white-backlash-150-years-of-struggle-for-national-liberation-and-socialism/5510800
“The Campaign to Free Angela Davis and Ruchell Magee.” The New York Times. June 27, 1971. Accessed on April 2, 2017. http://www.nytimes.com/books/98/03/08/home/davis-campaign.html/
CBS. “Black Power, White Backlash”. http://www.cbsnews.com/videos/black-power-white-backlash/?lumiereId=50034415&videoId=66d656c3-8bdf-11e2-9400-029118418759&cbsId=2906180&site=cbsnews . CBS. Peter Lang Publishing. June 8, 2007. Accessed April 5, 2017
“Celebrate the Anniversary of the Foundation of the Black Panther Party.” The Red Phoenix ALP. October 15, 2011. Accessed April 5, 2017. https://theredphoenixapl.org/2011/10/15/celebrate-the-anniversary-of-the-foundation-of-the-black-panther-party/
Cleaver, Kathleen Neal. “Women, Power, and Revolution.” New Political Science. Volume 21, Number 2, 1999. Accessed on April 2, 2017. http://proxy-remote.galib.uga.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=6673500&site=eds-live
“Cointelpro”. The FBI. N/A. Accessed April 5, 2017. https://vault.fbi.gov/cointel-pro
Digital Library of Georgia. “Afrocentric Education”. http://digitalcommons.auctr.edu/hilliard/31/ . dlg.galileo.usg.edu. Galileo Initiative. February 11, 1991. Accessed April 4, 2017
“The Great Society and the Drive for Black Equality”. Digital History. 2016. Accessed April 1, 2017. http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/disp_textbook.cfm?smtid=2&psid=3329
“How the 1960’s Riots Hurt African-Americans”. The National Bureau of Economic Research. N/A. Accessed April 5, 2017. http://www.nber.org/digest/sep04/w10243.html
“James Meredith on What Today’s Activism is Missing.” Time. June 6, 2016. Accessed on April 1, 2017. http://time.com/4356404/james-meredith-50th-anniversary-march-against-fear/
“Los Siete de La Raza.” Ramparts. March, 1971. Accessed on March 4, 2017. http://www.itsabouttimebpp.com/Unity_Support/pdf/Los_Siete_de_la_Raza_Ramparts_1971.pdf
MALCOLMSREVENGE. “Malcolm X Kills Uncle Toms like A Beast”. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=93XHuPm9IUI . Youtube.com. Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim. August 24, 2015. Accessed March 31, 2017.
“Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association”. Nationalhumanitiescenter. October 2000. Accessed April 5. 2017. http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/twenty/tkeyinfo/garvey.htm
“Martin Luther King Jr. and the Global Freedom Struggle”. Kingencyclopedia.stanford. Accessed April 5, 2017. http://kingencyclopedia.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/encyclopedia/enc_black_nationalism/index.html
New Afrikan Independence Movement. “RBG – Why We Wear Our Hair Like This 1968, Kathleen Cleaver of BPP Breaks it Down.” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SUdHf6nqL9U . Youtube.com. Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim. October 1, 2012. Accessed March 31, 2017.
Ontiveros, Randy Jr. In the Spirit of a New People: the Cultural Politics of the Chicano Movement. New York City: New York University Press, 2014.
“The Panthers’ Revolutionary Feminism.” The New York Times. October 2, 2015. Accessed on April 2, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2015/10/04/movies/the-panthers-revolutionary-feminism.html
PBS. “Free Breakfast Program”. http://www.pbs.org/independentlens/videos/free-breakfast-program/. PBS. Independent Television. Accessed April 5, 2017
“Power Player.” Smithsonian Magazine. June, 2016. Accessed on April 1, 2017. http://proxy-remote.galib.uga.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=fth&AN=115645679&site=eds-live#.WOUJxgj2UMQ.gmail
RetroBlackMedia. “Afro Sheen Ad 4.” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IrZ3c0x14TE . Youtube.com. Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim, September 20, 2010. Accessed April 4, 2017.
Shakur, A. (2014). Assata: an autobiography. London: Zed Books.
“Stokely Carmichael”. History. 2009. Accessed April 5, 2017. http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/stokely-carmichael
“This Day in History: James Meredith Shot.” History.com. 2010. Accessed on April 1, 2017. http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/james-meredith-shot
“The Woman Question: Gender Dynamics within the Black Panther Party.” Spectrum: a journal on Black men. Fall, 2016. Accessed on April 2, 2017. https://muse-jhu-edu.proxy-remote.galib.uga.edu/article/634848/pdf